Zambia has a 4-7-2-3 formal education structure. There are four years of pre-primary school, which has an official entry age of three and is referred to as preschool education. Primary school has an official entry age of seven and a duration of seven grades. At the end of the cycle, students receive the Primary School Certificate. Secondary school is divided into two cycles: lower secondary and upper secondary.
Lower secondary, which is known as secondary education, consists of grades 8-9 and culminates in the Junior Secondary School (JSS) Grade 9 Certificate; upper secondary, which is known as secondary education, consists of grades 10-12 and culminates in the Grade 12 Certificate (Zambian School Certificate Examination or General Certificate of Education O-levels). In addition, Zambia has early childhood education development (ECED) programs for children between six months and three years old. There is also an upper secondary vocational education track that lasts between six months and one year (ISCED 2011 mapping for 2014 school year).